Curriculum Vitae of Gerald C. Huth Ph.D.

Published Papers


Gerald Huth Ph.D.

Gerald Huth Ph.D.

My  background is in solid state and semiconductor physics,   radiation damage,  the interaction of optical and nuclear radiation with matter and the detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiation.  I initiated development of three of the most advanced radiation detection technologies – the use of mercuric iodide (HgI2) single crystal and high purity “intrinsic” germanium in advanced solid state x-ray and gamma ray spectroscopy, and the  development of the solid state replacement for the vacuum photomultiplier tube based on “avalanche” impact ionization in silicon (Note: the original development of the hyper purity intrinsic germanium single crystal was the work of R.N. Hall of the General Electric Research Laboratory one of the true pioneers in the semiconductor field).

Earlier, while with the General Electric Company I was responsible for a major innovation in the semiconductor field of a method for controlling electric fields at the surface of semiconductor junctions that has been termed “surface contouring”. This innovation is in use in high power, high voltage power conversion systems around the world and was  instrumental in the development of high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems for transmitting electrical power over long distances.  The fundamental innovation increased  the blocking voltage of  thyristor valves and rectifiers to the 7,000-10,000 volt range from previous, surface limited, values of only 300-500 volts.

(The ultimate objective in using contouring to control the surface electric field of a PN junction is to fabricate a “structurally perfect” junction, i.e. one that achieves reverse breakdown uniformly over it’s entire (bulk) area. Such a junction would be to a large degree indestructible in electrical application. Even to this day forty years later this has yet to be accomplished although in radiation detector research values of greater than 99% of that value were achieved. The ability to handle large power levels and overloads without device failure is becoming an increasingly important requirement in advanced pulsed power systems so there is hope that this development will yet be pursued.)

Return to top of page.


Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, Ph.D. Physics/Electronics, 1974
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, B.S. Physics, 1953
Aloysius Gonzaga College High School, Washington, DC, 1948

Return to top of page.


University of Southern California

Research Professor of Radiology and Physics in the School of Medicine and Director of the Institute for Physics of that school. Taught the physics of radiology and nuclear medicine. This group was founded in 1976  in collaboration with the Dean of the medical school (Dr. Franz Bauer). This was an interdisciplinary effort  that combined the disciplines of physics, digital image processing, engineering, and computer science to study advanced medical problem areas. Research projects included, as noted above, new concepts for detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiations for application to radiology and nuclear medicine, computer image processing as applied to PETT and CT scanning, and use of advanced photonics technology in the early detection and treatment of lung and breast cancer (“photoradiation therapy”). A capability for early detection and treatment of lung cancer under the medical direction of Dr. Oscar Balchum was formed within the School of Medicine – an effort that continues to this day chiefly in Japan. A particular area of fundamental study was the quantum theory of biological action of Frohlich.

And previously,

University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)

Professor and Chief of the Division of Measurement Science of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology. Formed an interdisciplinary group that was the forerunner of the Institute of Physics at the University of Southern California. Among other initiatives, this group built the second positron emission trans axial tomography (PETT) scanner after this work was initiated by Michael TerPogossian at Washington University in St. Louis.

(Significant accomplishments were made by both the UCLA and USC groups. Dr. Zang Cho of the group went on to become a leading scientist in the fields of PETT and MRI imaging and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Commercialization of the technology of mercuric iodide resulted in numerous applications ranging from unique portable x-ray fluorescence elemental analyzers for geological and space exploration to NASA sponsorship for growth of the crystal under zero gravity conditions. One of the mercuric iodide crystal growers actually becoming an astronaut to oversee this project. Cryogenic intrinsic germanium x-ray and gamma ray spectrometers have emerged as the standard for these measurements in the high energy physics field. Solid state silicon avalanche photodetectors have begun to replace the vacuum photomultiplier tube (as “LAAPD” or Large Area Avalanche Photodection Devices) and the technology has only begun to realize it’s potential in advanced photonics areas such as making possible truly practical, room temperature single photon detection and the many advanced logic possiblities deriving therefrom. Photonic methods for the early detection and treatment of lung cancer developed by the group have evolved and are in wide use in, for example, Japan where actual cures are being reported following early detection. Use of optically fluorescent, tumor seeking, hematorporphyrin and it’s derivatives in “photoradiation” cancer therapy has evolved and is now in wide use.)

And previously:

General Electric Company

Sequentially with the (futuristic for it’s time but one of the more ill-conceived projects ever devised by man!) Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Department (Evendale, Ohio) and the Semiconductor Products Department (Auburn and Syracuse, NY) and finally with the Space Sciences Laboratory of the Missile and Space Division (King of Prussia, PA). Eventually organized and became Technical Director of, “Space Technology Products” a commercial business operation within the aerospace General Electric Space Division. This business with a $1.2 million volume in 1972, was formed to commercialize Dr. Huth’s silicon radiation detection concept. This group also built and marketed the first “intrinsic ” germanium x-ray spectrometer. These radiation detection and spectroscopy developments have since become commercial products in widespread use. Silicon avalanche detectors (now termed “LAAPD” or Large Area Avalanche Photodetection Devices) are marketed commercially by Advanced Photonics, Inc., Camarillo, CA – a company Dr. Huth founded.

Return to top of page.


U.S. Patent No. 3,293,435 – “A Charge Multiplying Semiconductor Radiation Detector”, Dec. 20,1960

U.S. Patent No. 3,449,177 – “A Radiation Detector”, June 10,1969

U.S. Patent No. 3,393315 – “A Digital, High Speed, High Sensitivity Ionizing Radiation Detection Scheme” (Also issued as French patent No. 1,494,024)

U.S. Patent No. 3,491,272 – “Semiconductor Device With Increased Voltage Breakdown Characteristics” , Jan 20,1970, (Patents also applied for in France and the Soviet Union).

U.S. Patent No. 3,538,356 – “Energy Converter”

U.S. Patent No. 3,575,644 – “Semiconductor Device With a Double Positive Bevel”, Jan 20,1970

Patent applied for 1969 – “Silicon Device Having a Lead Silicate Glass Thereon and Method of Forming Same” (Subsequently issued).

Patent application 1985 – “A Room Temperature, Quantum Sensitive Optical Switch”

U.S. Patent – No. 5,021,854 “Silicon Avalanche Photodiode Array”, June 4,1991

U.S. Patent – No. 5,146,296 “Devices for Detecting and/or Imaging Single Photoelectrons”, Sept. 8,1992

Patent application 1991 “A Unique Single Electron ‘Time Coded’ Optical Guidance System Employing a Single Electron Sensitive Imaging Detector” – assigned to Advanced Photonix, Inc., Camarillo,CA

U.S. Patent 5,689,603 “An Optically Interactive Nanostructure” (patent counsels, Choate, Hall & Stewart, Boston, MA,), Dec.15,1997

Return to top of page.

Papers Published

I have come upon a government Energy Citations Database that list some of my publications:,%20G.C.%22

J.D.Bond, G.C.Huth, “Electrostatic Modulation of Electromagnetically Induced Nonthermal Responses in Biological Membranes”, Modern Bioelectrochemistry, Edited by Felix Gutmann and Hendrik Keyzer, Plenum, 1986

A.M.Pellino, G.C.Huth, and D. Mobius, “A Langmuir Blodgett Study of the Oreientation of the Cancer Photoradiation Therapy Drug Dihematoporphyrin Ether at Water-Air and Water-Fatty acid-Air Interfaces”, Thin Solid Films, 145, (1986), 259-272

Huth,G.C., Hall,G.N., ” Methods for Improving Radiation Tolerance of Semiconductor Devices”, Proceedings of 2nd Conf. on Effects of Nuclear Radiation on Semiconductor Devices, Materials and Circuits, (198)

Huth,G.C., Bergeson,H.E., Trice,J.B., “Stable, High Field Silicon PN Junction Radiation Detectors”, Rev. of Sci. Insts.,34, 1283, (1963)

Huth,G.C., Trice,J.B., McKinney,R.A., “Internal Pulse Amplification in Silicon PN Junction Radiation Detectors”, Rev. of Sci. Insts.,35, No.9, 1220-1222, (1964)

Huth,G.C., Trice,J.B., Shannon,J.A., “Use of SiA(n,a)MgA-3 and SiA(n,p)AlA-1 Reactions in a Semiconductor Diode to Measure Neutron Spectra”, IEEE Trans on Nucl. Sci., NS-12, No.1, (1965)
Huth,G.C., Trice,J.B., McKinney,R.A., Locker,R.J., “Study of Surface Contouring as Applied to Semiconductor Radiation Detectors”, Series of reports under AEC Contract NYO-3246 published annually from June 1965 to July 1972

Huth,G.C., “Recent Results Obtained with High Field, Internally Amplifying Semiconductor Radiation Detectors”, IEEE Trans on Nucl. Sci., NS-13, No.1, (1966)

Huth,G.C., “A New Ionizing Radiation Detection Concept Which Employs Semiconductor Avalanche Amplification and the Tunnel Diode Element”, App. Physics Letters, 9, 5 Sept.1966

Huth,G.C., Locker,R.J., Trice,J.B., “A 9,000 ngstrom Optical Ranging System Using a Unique Optoelectronic Receiver”, IEEE Trans. on Conf. on Solid State Circuits, 118-120, (1967)

Huth,G.C., “Development of a Germanium Avalanche Semiconductor Radiation ëetector”, IEEE Trans on Nucl. Sci., NS-15, No.3, (1968)

Klippel,F.A., Huth,G.C., “Thermal Noise Behavior of a Thick Depletion Region Avalanche Photodetector”, Proc. of the IEEE, 56, No.7, July (1968)

Huth,G.C., “An Avalanche Multiplying Diode” Semiconductor Nuclear Particle Detectors and Circuits, Nat. Acad. of Sciences publication 1593, (1969)

Johnston,P.A., Locker,R.J., Huth,G.C., “Low Energy Radioactivity and Avalanche Semiconductor Radiation Detectors”, Isotopes and Radiation Technology, 7, No.3, (1970)

Moldofsky,P.J., Huth,G.C., “In-vivo Measurements of Plutonium and Other Low Energy Emitters”, Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors. IAEA, Vienna, November 1970

Hewka,P.V., Swinth,K.L., Huth,G.C., “Biomedical Application of Avalanche Semiconductor Detectors”, IEEE Trnas. on Nucl. Sci., NS-17, No.3, (1970)

Moldofsky,P.J., Huth,G.C., “Avalanche Semiconductor Detectors in Biology and Medicine”, Conf on Semiconductor Detectors in the Future of Nuclear Medicine, Chapter 6, edited by P.B.Hoffer, published by the Soc. of Nucl. Medicine (1971)

Marcus,C.S., Moldofsky,P.J., Huth,G.C., Porter,V.L.,”Use of Silicon Avalanche Detectors for Detection of the Isotopes Carbon-14, Sulphur-35, and Calcium-45″, 19th Annual Meeting of the Soc. of Nuclear Medicine, (1972)

Huth,G.C., Gans,R., Cho,Z.H., “The Use of X-ray Transmission and Semiconductor Detectors to Obtain Dynamic Organ Function Curves”, Proc. of Conf. on Semiconductor Detectors in Medicine, Edited by L.Kaufmann and D.Price,Conf 73-0321, (1973)

Cho,Z.H., Ahn,I.,Bohm,C., Huth,G.C., “Computerized Image Reconstruction Methods with Multiple Photon/X-ray Transmission Scanning”, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 19, No.4, 511-522,(1974)

Cho,Z.H., Huth,G.C., Budinger,T.F., “Computerized Image Reconstruction Techniques and Their Applications”, (Invited paper), Journal of Pattern Recognition, (1974)

Huth,G.C., Dugas,D.G., “The Possible Relationship Between Inhaled Submicron Particles and the Induction of Lung Cancer”, The Health Effects of Plutonium and Radium, Edited by Webster Jee, The J.W. Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, (1976)

Profio,A.E., Huth,G.C., “Remote Sensing of Plutonium and Other Gamma Ray Emitters Through Detection of Collided Photons Scattered into the Low Energy Region”, Nuclear Technology, 26, July (1975)

Slapa,M., Huth,G.C., Seibt,W., “Room Temperature Mercuric Iodide (HgI2) Low Energy X-ray Spectrometers”, Presented at the First Workshop on Mercuric Iodide held in Strasburg, France and published in Proceeding, June (1975)

Slapa,M., Huth,G.C., Seibt,W., “Capabilities of Mercuric Iodide as a Room Temperature X-ray Detector”, IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci., NS-23, No.1, February (1976)

Tove,P.A., Cho,Z.H., Huth,G.C., “The Importance fof the Time Scale in Radiation Detection Exemplified by Comparing Conventional and Avalanche Semiconductor Detectors”, Physica Scripta, 13, 83-92, (1976)

Huth,G.C., Hall,E.L., “Computed Tomography and It’s Application to Nuclear Medical Imaging”, Chapter in Current Concepts in Radiology, Volume 3, Edited by J. Potchen, C.V.Mosby and Co. (1977)

Hall,E.L., Huth,G.C., Gans,A.R., Reed,I.M., “Artifacts in Three Dimensional Reconstruction from Medical Radiographic Projections”, National Bureau of Standards Conf. on Sterology, Sept. (1976)

Huth,G.C., Luk,A.L., Levis,R.L., Hall,E.L., Frei,W., “Image Enhancement Techniques in Computed Tomography”, Proc. of Symposium on Computer Aided Enhancement of Medical Images, IEEE Publication 76CH1170-OC, Nov (1976)

Profio,A.E., Doiron,D., Huth,G.C., “Fluorescence Bronchoscope for Early Lung Tumor Localization”, IEEE Trans on Nucl. Sci., NS-24, No.1, December (1976)

Seibt,W., Slapa,W., Huth,G.C., “Improved Performance of HgI2 Spectrometers in the Low Energy X-ray Region”, Nuc.Insts. and Methods, 35, 573-576, (1976)

Gelezunas,V., Seibt,W., Huth,G.C., “Uniform, Large Area, High Gain Silicon Avalanche Radiation Detectors From Neutron Transmutation Doped Silicon”, Applied Physics Letters, 30, No.2, January (1977)

Akutagawa,W.M., Huth,G.C., Levis,R.E., Drianis,G.C., Davis,R.L., “Increased Tissue Differentiation Using Color Display of Multiple Energy CT Scans”, Radiology, 134, 739-756, March (1980)

Dabrowski,A.J., Huth,G.C., “Toward the Energy Resolution Limit of Mercuric Iodide in Room Temperature Low Energy X-ray Spectrometry”, IEEE Trnas. on Nucl. Sci., NS-25, No.1, February, (1978)

Huth,G.C., Profio,A.E., Doiron,D., “A Laser Fiberoptic Bronchoscope for Optical Fluorescence Localization of Early Lung Cancer” CLEOS-78 Conf. on Laser aand Electrooptical Systems, February (1978)

Dabrowski,A.J., Huth,G.C., Singh,M., Economou,T.E.,Turkevitvh,A., “Characteristic X-ray Spectra of Sodium and Magnesium Measured at Room Temperature Using Mercuric Iodide”, Applied Physics Letters, 33, No.2, 15 July (1978)

Huth,G.C., Hikin,B., Rodov,V., “Study of the Spatial Characteristics of the Breakdown Process in Silcon Devices Fabricated from Neutron Transmutation Doped Silicon”, Neutron Transmutation Doping in Semiconductors, Edited by J.Meese, Plenum Press, (1979)

Huth,G.C., Dabrowski,A.J., Singh,M., Economou,T.E., Turkevitch,A., “A New X-ray Spectroscopy Concept – Room Temperature Mercuric Iodide with Peltier Cooled Preamplification”, Advances in X-ray Analysis, 22, Plenum Press, (1979)

Faile,S.P., Dabrowski,A.J., Huth,G.C., Iwanczyk,J.S., “Energy Resolution of HgI2 Platelets Produced by Polymer Controlled Crystal Growth”, Journal of Crystal Growth, 50, 752-756, (1980)

Iwanczyk,J.S., Dabrowski,A.J., Huth,G.C., et al, “A Study of Low Noise Preamplifier Systems for Use With Room Temperature Mercuric Iodide X-ray Detectors” IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci., NS-28, No.1, February (1981)

Dabrowski,A.J., Iwanczyk,J.S.,Barton,J.B., Huth,G.C., et al, “Performance of Room Temperature Mercuric Iodide Detectorsa in the Ultra Low Energy X-ray Ragion”, IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci., NS-28, No.1, February (1981)

Szmczyk,W.M., Dabrowski,A.J., Huth,G.C., et al, “Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with Solid State Detectors by Current Pulse Height Analysis”, Nuclear Insts. and Methods, North Holland Publishing, (1982)

Huth,G.C., Bond,J.D., Tove,P.A., “Nonlinear Tunnel Device Theory Applies to Biological Membrane”, Nonlinear Electrodynamics in Biological Systems, Edited by Ross Adey, Plenum Press (1984)

Balchum,O.J., Doiron,D.R., Profio,A.E., Huth,G.C., “Fluorescence Bronchoscopy for Localizing Early Bronchial Cancer”, Recent Results in Cancer Research, 82, 98-120, (1982)

Profio,A.E., Doiron,D.R., Balchum,O.J., Huth,G.C., Fluorescence Bronchoscopy for Localization of Carcinoma-in-situ”, Medical Physics, 10, No.1, 35-39, (1983)

Balchum,O.J., Profio,A.E., Doiron,D.R., Huth,G.C., “Imaging Fluorescence Bronchoscopy for Localizing Early Bronchial Cancer”, Proc. of the Clayton Symposium on Porphyrin Localization and Treatment of Tumors, Santa Barbara, CA (1984)

Balchum,O.J., Doiron,D.R., Huth,G.C., “Photoradiation Therapy of Obstructing Endobronchial Tumors”, Proc. of the Clayton Symposium on Porphyrin Localization and Treatment of Tumors, Santa Barbara, CA (1984)

Iwanczyk,J.S., Dabrowski,A.J., Huth,G.C., et al, “Measurement of the Characteristic X-ray of Oxygen and Other Ultra Soft X-rays Using Mercuric Iodide Detectors”, Applied Physics Letters, 46, (6) March (1985)

Saccomanno, G., Yale,C., Dixon,W., Auerbach,O., Huth,G.C., “An Epidemiological Analysis of the Relationship Between Exposure to Radon Daughters, Smoking and Bronchogenic Carcinoma in the Uranium Mining Population of the Colorado Plateau (1960-1980)”, Accepted for publication Health Physics, (1985)

Huth, G.C. Invited Speaker – Meeting on Energy Flow in Biological Systems, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, June 1985

Return to top of page.


Comments on this entry are closed.